Education level showed an influence on cognitive status. When we used a logistic regression model estimated by the bootstrap method and adjusted by age and education level, we found statistical differences between menopausal HTN vs menopausal normotension OR, 1. There was an inverse association between HTN and health perception. Prevalence of HTN is directly related to age, and our study was no exception; Distribution was variable according to age: from These results can likely be explained by the chronic nature of the condition as well as how it affects pathological mechanisms.
This should be contrasted with aging and vascular damage in older women, when control is more difficult to achieve, even if treatment compliance is acceptable. In our study, Once again, the noncontrolled group included elderly women Prevalence of HTN in menopausal women was higher. In our sample, the relationship between HTN in menopausal vs nonmenopausal women The level of knowledge about HTN is essential for treatment compliance and, therefore, control of the condition. The number of treated patients in our study were They are common in women and even more common in menopausal women.
Therefore, HTN increases the risk of having a mental disorder and vice versa , and it is vital to recognize the early association between the conditions. The presence of menopause did not modify the result hypertensive menopausal women: anxiety These results were not enough to establish statistically significant differences between the groups; however, they are still significant in the clinical aspect.
Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women.
In our study, a statistically significant relationship was found between HTN and cognitive performance in all domains under study executive function and semantic memory as well as a relationship between menopause and cognition. However, this association was lost when the multiple linear regressions model was used in which age and schooling were the variables responsible for such an association.
When the hypertensive menopausal group was analyzed, cognitive impairment was higher than in the nonmenopausal hypertensive group. Typically, low performance on the MMSE and CDT proves cognitive decline in general; hopefully, this was related to lower level of education in women. However, differences were found in the test that evaluates cortical functions BNT. Such difference persisted even when uneducated women were excluded.
Vascular brain injury as a result of HTN causes executive dysfunction subcortical damage.
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An important aspect of the programming of sex differences during development is that these differences may contribute to the development and patterns of adult cognitive loss seen in some neurodegenerative and psychiatric diseases. Women have a higher rate of Alzheimer's disease than men, and with more negative symptoms. A recent study reported no changes in immediate or working memory, delayed recall, verbal learning, or verbal fluency across the menstrual cycle.
Future research is needed on estrogen treatments for women with impaired memory and other symptoms caused by either premature menopause oophorectomy menopause or aging. Clinical and experimental studies suggest that endogenous estrogens prevent high BP possibly because of reduction in nitric oxide and prostacyclin I—mediated vasodilatations.
Data showed the disassociation of HTN control and its treatment, the importance of education to create awareness regarding this health issue, and the impact of the disease on cognitive functions, using in this case measures leading to the early diagnosis. The weak point of our study was that, in this sample, cognitive disorders were detected using the tests mentioned.
MCE were not confirmed or checked together with diagnostic neuropsychological studies. It is important to note that the participants were directly assessed. In our sample, HTN was shown to be highly prevalent in menopausal women. This association of HTN and menopause seems to have a negative impact on cortical functions semantic memory.
Further prospective studies about the relationship between HTN, menopause, and cognitive impairment are needed. The authors report no specific funding in relation to this research and no conflicts of interest to disclose. Volume 17 , Issue The full text of this article hosted at iucr.
If you do not receive an email within 10 minutes, your email address may not be registered, and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account. If the address matches an existing account you will receive an email with instructions to retrieve your username. Original Paper Free Access. Judith M. Gustavo H.
High blood pressure a silent danger in postmenopausal women
Tools Request permission Export citation Add to favorites Track citation. Share Give access Share full text access. Share full text access. Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension HTN. A total of 22 of 34 neighborhoods were randomly surveyed between February and August Diagnosis Criteria Cutoff Values BP diastolic and systolic considering an average value of the last two of three measurements of a seated patient using a validated semiautomatic digital sphygmomanometer with an adjustable cuff according to the arm circumference.
- Age at First Childbirth and Hypertension in Postmenopausal Women. - Semantic Scholar.
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Statistical Analyses This is an epidemiological and transversal study. Figure 1 Open in figure viewer PowerPoint. Logistic regression model estimated by Bootstrap method, corrected by educational level. Study Limitations and Strengths The weak point of our study was that, in this sample, cognitive disorders were detected using the tests mentioned. Conclusions In our sample, HTN was shown to be highly prevalent in menopausal women.
Disclosures The authors report no specific funding in relation to this research and no conflicts of interest to disclose. Prevalence of insulin resistance in essential hypertension. Chronic subclinical inflammation as part of the insulin resistance syndrome: the insulin resistance atherosclerosis study IRAS. Menopause-related blood pressure increase and its relationship to age and body mass index: the SIMONA epidemiological study. Blood pressure and metabolic profile after surgical menopause: comparison with fertile and naturally-menopausal women.
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Hypertension ; —33 CrossRef Google Scholar. Characterization of an animal model of postmenopausal hypertension in SHR. Angiotensin II and long-term arterial pressure regulation: the overriding dominance of the kidney. Subpressor doses of angiotensin II increases plasma F2-isoprostanes in rats. Effects of the menopause, gender, and estrogen replacement therapy on vascular nitric oxide activity.
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