Weeden found. Men and women with law and business degrees have similar jobs right out of college, other research has found — but a decade later, women earn significantly less.
Today, a smaller share of college-educated women in their early 40s are working than a decade ago. With the rise of college-educated, dual-earner power couples, it was realistic to imagine that two people could each work in jobs at the top of their fields and share the duties at home. But at the same time as work became more demanding, family life changed, too. People are increasingly marrying people with similar educations and career potential — a doctor is likely to be married to another doctor instead of a nurse.
Yet the pay gap between husbands and wives is biggest for those with higher education and white-collar jobs.
Some parents on elite career paths each continue on them and outsource child care, while others decide not to maximize their family earnings and each take lower-paying, more flexible jobs. But researchers say that because of the changes in work and family, many educated couples are finding that couple equity is out of reach — and many women are left with unused career potential.
These women have made all these skills and investments and are not fully reaping those returns. Eighty percent of women in their early 40s with doctorates or professional degrees are mothers, up from 65 percent two decades ago, according to the Pew Research Center. In , only half of women working in the 10 highest-paying occupations were married, and only a third had a child, found research by Marianne Bertrand , an economist at the University of Chicago Booth School of Business.
By , they were slightly more likely to be married than other working women, and just as likely to have a child. Meanwhile, being a parent, particularly a mother, has become more intensive. Working mothers today spend as much time with their children as stay-at-home mothers did in the s. The number of hours that college-educated parents spend with their children has doubled since the early s, and they spend more of that time interacting with them, playing and teaching. The same challenge affects single parents, same-sex parents and couples in which the father is the primary parent. Three-quarters of men in the top 1 percent of earners have an at-home spouse.
Just a quarter of women in the top 1 percent of earners do — and they are likely to be self-employed, suggesting that they have more control over their hours.
A third paper by Ms. Cha , using data from the Survey of Income and Program Participation, found that in dual-earner households in which a man worked 60 or more hours, particularly in a professional or managerial job, women were three times as likely to quit. Men with wives who worked long hours were no more likely to quit. Schneid had other reasons to split their responsibilities the way they did.
She graduated during the Great Recession and was laid off early on. By the time he graduated two years later, he earned more than she did. But gender factored in. Schneid is a hands-on father.
Exhaustion, Incontinence and the Messy Reality of Returning to Work After a Baby
But Ms. There are many ideas about how to close the gender gap — things like paid parental leave and anti-bias training. Women could negotiate more; men could do more housework. But most are band-aids, Ms. At home, mothers do more housework and childcare than fathers , even when both parents work full-time, and mothers today are doing just as much hands-on parenting as stay-at-home mothers did in the s.
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And studies have a found that mothers are judged more harshly than fathers for making the exact same parenting decisions. As a society, we have a deeply uncomfortable relationship with mothers getting mad. Women, fueled by anger, have invoked their identity as mothers in all kinds of fights for social justice throughout the 20th and 21st centuries. Mamie Till, the mother of the lynched teenager Emmett Till, pushed to allow photos of her murdered son to be publicized, which helped galvanize the civil rights movement nationally.
We have not yet seen much anger-fueled activism and organizing on behalf of ourselves.
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- Amy Schumer Admits She Was "Worried" and "Afraid" to Return to Work After Giving Birth.
She agrees that as a society, we are much more comfortable with mothers expressing guilt than we are with mothers expressing anger. Guilt and anger actually operate in different parts of the brain. In short, guilt keeps mothers quiet. Anger is different from guilt from a neurological perspective. Despite its bad rap, anger, which is different from aggression, is actually an outwardly much more productive emotion. Neural maps of the brain show that anger can energize us to move towards challenges — rather than retreating.
For mothers, I think tapping into anger could motivate us to speak up more about the injustices of our experience and take action. Comedian and actress Amy Schumer has been documenting her journey through pregnancy and motherhood on social media.
‘She goes bananas at weekends, then it’s back to work Monday’ - Sarah Greene - kwahicaninban.gq
Schumer married chef Chris Fischer in February The two welcomed son Gene in May of this year. Kate Middleton, Duchess of Cambridge, battled the condition with each of her three children. At one point, Schumer was hospitalized for the illness and asked her followers to send her pics of their kids and dogs to cheer her up. Much love accepting dog photos too.
The last few days have been tough. Post pics of your kids and tag me amyschumer My friends sending me pics and vids of their kids is making me feel so much better.
A post shared by amyschumer on Nov 29, at pm PST.